Diabetes – endocrine and metabolic disorders

Currently, due to diet, lifestyle and genetic factors, the number of people with diabetes is increasing every year and getting younger, especially in adolescence. Although this disease is only caused by endocrine and metabolic disorders, its complications greatly affect people’s lives.


What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic endocrine and metabolic disorder, when the body is intolerant of glucose, leading to higher than normal levels of sugar, protein, fat, and minerals in the blood. It is caused by the body’s reduced ability to produce the hormone insulin or produce antibodies to insulin or both.

Common types of diabetes

For each type of diabetes there will be different specific causes, so it is divided into the following types:

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a disease caused by the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas that causes insulin secretion to decrease or not to secrete insulin. This causes very little insulin to circulate in the blood, which cannot regulate blood sugar levels.

The pathology of autoimmune beta cell destruction is not completely understood, it is related between susceptibility genes, autoantigens and environmental factors.

Type 1 diabetes is usually detected in children or teens and recently the common form was diagnosed before age 30, accounting for about 5-10% of all cases of diabetes. In this form, the symptoms of the disease occur suddenly, progress quickly, so the disease can be easily detected. Treatment for patients in this form is only possible by daily insulin injections.

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes was formerly known as older adult diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes. In this form of the disease, insulin is secreted by the pancreas, although reaching the same amount as a normal person, reduces or does not play a role in regulating blood sugar levels. The cause is a progressive decrease in the function of pancreatic beta cells on the background of insulin resistance.

The disease usually starts in adults and becomes more common with aging, with nearly one-third of adults older than 65 having glucose intolerance disorders. But now type 2 diabetes is increasingly common in children because of obesity. More than 90% of adults with diabetes are type 2 diabetes.

The pathology is complex and not completely understood. Therefore, there are no clear determinants of whether being affected by inherited genes or having a single gene responsible for type 2 diabetes.

Besity and weight gain are important reasons of insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. They have defining factors but also reflect diet, exercise and lifestyle.

Restriction of intrauterine growth and low birth weight are also associated with insulin resistance later in life and may reflect environmental disadvantages in glucose metabolism.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnant women usually at 24 to 28 weeks. Because the placenta will produce female hormones such as estrogen, progesterone will act on insulin receptors on target cells, increasing insulin resistance. However, when the pancreas is unable to produce the sufficient amount of insulin needed to overcome this resistance, it leads to elevated blood sugar levels, leading to diabetes throughout pregnancy.



Prediabetes is a type of fasting sugar metabolism disorder or sugar tolerance disorder that causes blood glucose readings to rise but not yet exceed the threshold for diagnosis as diabetes. A glycemic index of about 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/l) is called prediabetes and is easy to develop into type 2 diabetes, even if it causes no obvious signs.

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